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Ovarian Cancer Symptoms, Causes And Treatments - Ovarian cancer is an uncommon type of female cancer from a different type of cells within the ovary. They have paired organs located on another side of the uterus within the broad ligament below the uterine (fallopian) tubes. They produce oocytes (eggs) for fertilization and the reproductive hormones, estrogen, and progesterone. 

The normal cell function will be disrupted when there is a malignancy. The danger is very difficult to recognize because they are very similar symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, full of stomach, irregular menstruation and so on.

What are the symptoms?

Such previous one, ovarian cancer usually has vague symptoms that are difficult to detect. Even health professionals are sometimes fooled because it is similar to other symptoms of other syndromes, such as premenstrual syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, or bladder problems. No wonder because of it close to the bladder, intestine, and other internal organs.
The main difference between ovarian cancer and those possibilities is the intensity and worsening of symptoms levels. I notice that most of the indigestion symptoms are fluctuating, whereas people with ovarian cancer experience more constant symptoms.

The following are the possible early symptoms of ovarian cancer:

  • Pain in the pelvis
  • Pain in the lower side of the body
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Back pain
  • Indigestion or heartburn
  • Feel full quickly while eating
  • More frequent and urinate urgently
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation
So, here are the symptoms :

  • Nausea
  • weight loss
  • hard to breathe
  • Fatigue 
  • Loss of appetite

But remember, this is just the early symptoms, you have to go to your doctor to ensure what is the real disease you are suffering from. The doctor will make you sure to the symptom whether the presence of ovarian cancer or not. Check your progress treatment.

What causes ovarian cancer?

Some possible causes of ovarian cancer have been identified, along with risk factors that can increase a person's likelihood of being exposed.

Cancer occurs when the structure of DNA in the cell undergoes mutation, which can affect how cells grow and develop. When mutations occur, the cells will grow and multiply uncontrollably, producing a lump of tissue called a tumor.

In ovarian cancer, ovarian cells turn malignant and grow abnormally. If the cancer is not identified early and untreated, it can spread to the abdomen and pelvis, including other parts of the female reproductive system.

There are several risk factors why ovarian cells mutate and turn into cancer.


The risk of ovarian cancer increases with your age, most cases occurring after menopause. More than 8 out of 10 cases of ovarian cancer occur in women over 50.

Family history

If you have two or more close relatives (mother, sister or child) who have ovarian cancer or breast cancer, then your risks will also increase.

Ovulation and fertility

When the process of the egg cell is released into the fallopian tubes during the time of ovulation, the egg sacs on the surface of the ovary rupture to remove the egg. The damaged surface of ovary needs to be repaired. Every improvement process occurs, there is a greater chance of abnormal cell growth during repair.

This is the reason why the risk of ovarian cancer is reduced if you take the contraceptive pill, or when pregnant and breastfeeding. Because at this time, the eggs are not released.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

A woman who doing  HRT has been shown to have a bit increased risk of ovarian cancer than she has not. However, if HRT is stopped,  the risk is reduced close to the same level as women who have never undergone HRT after pass five years.


Endometriosis may also increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, the surface cells of the uterus (endometrium) grow elsewhere in the body. Endometrial cells that grow elsewhere behave as when in the womb, so they will follow the menstrual cycle; there are thickening and bleeding that usually occurs during menstruation. It will cause pain, swelling and bleeding in the area.

How to detect it?

There are several procedures that a doctor needs to make sure to a person who has ovarian cancer or not. The following test is commonly used to diagnose ovarian cancer:

Blood test

There is a cancer marker called CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) made by certain cells in the body. A high level of CA 125 in the blood may indicate the presence of cancer, but it can also be caused by something else, such as infection of the abdominal and chest, menstrual, pregnancy, endometriosis, or liver diseases. This blood test is the only kind of test. You need to help doctors make the diagnosis. Normal CA125 levels are commonly no cancer diagnosis.


It is a device with high-frequency sound waves to create images on the monitor from the ovaries and surrounding conditions. It is inserted into the birth canal called transvaginal ultrasound, while external devices can be placed next to the abdomen. Ultrasound helps doctors diagnose the size and texture of the ovaries, and can observe the presence or absence of tumors such as cysts.

Laparoscopy and Endoscopy

A laparoscope is a thin elastic tube with a camera at its end - inserted into the patient through a small incision in the lower abdomen. The doctor can examine the ovaries in detail, and can also take a biopsy (take a small sample of tissue for examination). The patient will undergo general anesthesia for this procedure. Doctors may also use endoscopy to determine whether cancer has spread to the digestive system.


The colonoscope - a thin tube with a camera on it - will be inserted into the rectum. The patient who has rectum bleeding use colonoscopy to examine the colon.

Other checks:

Aspiration of abdominal fluid
Rongsen X-ray scan
CT Scan
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan

How is the treatment?

Treatment depends on how deep cancer has spread. The team of doctors will determine the treatment plan depending on your condition. Treatment of ovarian cancer will most likely include two or more of the following:

  • chemotherapy
  • radiation
  • operation
  • targeted therapy
  • hormone therapy
  • Operation

Surgery is the main treatment for ovarian cancer. The purpose of surgery is to remove the tumor, but hysterectomy or removal of the uterus is often necessary. Doctors may also recommend lifting both ovaries and fallopian tubes, lymph nodes, and other pelvic tissues.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapies are commonly implemented such as chemotherapy and radiation. These are to disable cancer cells with little damage to normal cells. They are to treat ovarian cancer include bevacizumab (Avastin) and olaparib (Lynparza). Doctors only use olaparib with mutations in the BRCA gene.


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