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Knee Injury: Types, Symptoms, Treatment And Home Remedies - The knee is one of the most common parts of the body that always exposed to injury. Its type includes sprains, strains, bursitis, dislocations, fractures, meniscus tears, and even overuse injuries. Knee injuries are generally caused by twisting or bending force applied to the knee, or a direct blow, such as sports or falls accidents. Risk factors include overuse, improper training, having osteoporosis, and playing high-impact sports that involve sudden changes in direction.

The main signs and symptoms of knee injury are pain and swelling. They are diagnosed by a history and physical examination. Sometimes they may examine by an X-ray or MRI 

Prognosis for knee injury depends on the type and severity of the injury and the need for physical therapy or surgery.Prevention of knee injuries involves proper training, proper equipment, and maintaining a safe sports venue.

For easier understanding of knee injury and treatment. First, let's know the anatomical knee structure:

Bone. Three bones meet to form knee joints: femur, shin (tibia), and kneecap (patella).
Articular cartilage. The ends of the femur and tibia and the back of the patella are covered with articular cartilage. It is a slippery structure that helps the knee bone to move smoothly to one another at the knee joint.
Meniscus. Structures that act as shock absorbers between the femur and the tibia.
Ligaments. Ligaments connect between bones. There are four major ligaments on the knee that strongly hold the bones and maintain knee stability.

  • Collateral Ligaments. It is on the knee side. the medial collateral ligament is located on the inside of the knee, while the lateral collateral ligament is outside.
  • Cruciate ligaments. Located inside the knee joint like in the picture. They cross each other to form an "X" with the anterior ligaments in front and the posterior ligaments behind. The cruciate ligament controls the movement back and forth of the knee.
Tendons. Connecting muscles with bones

Kinds of Knee Injury

Each part knee could be get injured, as they consist of many parts. The most common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains and tearing in soft tissues, such as ligaments. In most cases, injuries can involve more than one structure.

Pain and swelling are signs of a knee injury that most easily we observe. In addition, the knee can become rigid so it is difficult to move or can also be instability.

Here are some common types of knee injuries:

Fracture. Fractures around the knee are most often caused by high-energy trauma, such as falling from a significant height and a motor vehicle crash.

Dislocation. Dislocations occur when the knee bone is out of place, either partially or completely. Commonly known as sliding joints. Dislocations are most often caused by high-energy trauma, such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, and sports.

Anterior injury Cruciate ligament (ACL). This often happens during sports activities. Athletes who participate in sports such as soccer and basketball are more likely to experience it. Changing directions quickly or landing from an incorrect jump can tear the ACL. About half of all injuries to the anterior ligament occur along with other structural damage in the knee, such as articular cartilage, meniscus, or other ligaments.

Collateral Ligament Injury. It usually caused by forces that push the knee to the side.

Meniscus Torn. It often happens during sports. A torn meniscus can occur when the motion rotates. However, it can also occur as a result of arthritis or aging.

Tendons Torn. The patellar tendon and quadriceps can be stretched and torn. This is more common in middle-aged people who play sport walking or jumping.

Knee Injury Treatments

When you have recently had a knee injury, do the RICE (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) method that can help speed recovery. Here's the explanation:

  • Rest (Rest). Immediately stop any knee activity and movement.
  • Ice (ice). Provide ice cubes and break them into small pieces and wrap them in rubber or cloth bags. Apply it to the injured knee for 15 minutes and repeat every few hours later.
  • Compression (compression). Do bandage with compression bandage (elastic verband) to reduce swelling.
  • Elevation (elevation). lying with an elevated limb to reduce swelling.

Remember that :

  • Do not apply hot compresses on the joints.
  • Do not massage the joints, as this can lead to more severe bleeding and swelling.

After that immediately seek medical help, especially orthopedic doctors, especially if you have:

  • The pain is getting worst
  • You can't move the knee
  • Swelling on injured knee
  • Start limping

After performing the examination, the doctor will deal with treatment adjusted for several factors, such as the severity of the injury, age, general health, and activity level.

Knee Injury Therapy Without Surgery

Some knee injuries can be treated just with simple steps, such as:

  • Immobilization. Your doctor may recommend a brace to prevent knee motion. If there is a broken bone, then the cast can hold the bone to stay in its proper place while waiting for healing.
  • Physical therapy. Special exercises will restore knee function and strengthen the leg muscles that support it.
  • Antinori Drugs. Drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen can reduce pain and swelling.

Operation Therapy

Some fractures and knee injuries require surgery to restore full leg function. In some cases - such as torn ACLs - surgery can be performed arthroscopically using miniature instruments and small incisions. However, many knee injuries require open surgery with larger incisions allowing the bone surgeon to look directly at the wider and easier access to reach the damaged structure.

Sorce of Reference: Department of Research & Scientific Affairs, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Rosemont, IL: AAOS; February 2014. Based on data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2010; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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